Linguistics is the systematic study of the sounds available in a language, how they are produced and how they are represented by symbols. And thereafter how these sounds are classified as Vowels and Consonants, how words are formed and how sentences are constructed and its rules as grammar.
Phonetics is the study the sounds we make while we speak and how these sounds are produced by our mouth. It is broadly grouped as vowels and consonants. Vowels are produced without obstruction and consonants are produced with obstruction by the closure of mouth and by articulation of the tongue. Combination of two vowels is called a diphthong.
Example a+i = ai, a+u = au.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound that distinguish one word from another. Two words that differ in meaning through a contrast of a single phoneme form what is called a minimal pair.
Example: pet-bet, tale-dale, came-game.
A Grapheme is a letter (Alphabet) representing a phoneme, a mark of punctuation or any other symbol in a writing system.
Words are nothing but combination of phonemes. Formation of Words is called Morphology and how words are modified due to Number and Gender and derivatives.
Sentences are constructed by the arrangement of the words. It is called Syntax. Its rules are called Grammar.
Grammar deals with Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives, Verbs, Adverbs, Case markers, Prepositions/Postpositions, Number, Gender, Phrases, Clauses, Sentences-Simple, Complex and Compound, Tenses and conjugation of the verb, Degrees of Comparison, Voices, Direct Speech and Indirect Speech, Punctuation marks Idioms etc.
Etymology is the study of the history of words, their origin and how their form and meaning have changed over a period of time.
Semantics is the study of the meaning of a particular word or interpretation of the meaning of a word, sign, sentence etc. It is to be noted that there is no synonyms. In other words, each and every word gives a distinct meaning and tells the situation when it should be used. But some writers use different words giving almost the same meaning to avoid boredom in reading, thereby establishing their style of writing.
The same language is spoken in different regions slightly in a different way. This study is termed as Dialectology.
The Language differs from one community to another like Brahmin speech, Chettiar speech, servant maids speech etc.and it is called Sociolinguistics.
Historical Linguistics deals with the study of a language over a period of time as to how it has changed and the words lost, borrowed and again lost. Change of pronunction and its meaning.
Language is classified as Prose, Poetry and Drama. Spoken forms are called colloquial and written forms are called Literary. Some words are termed as slang and some words are termed as Taboo which are not to be used in printing.
Even the same word pronounced with different tone and accent gives different meaning.
There are thousands of words in a Language. And one cannot remember all. Hence to know the meaning of a particular word, Dictionary is compiled giving the meaning of the word, its usage, origin, parts of speech etc. The editing or making of a dictionary, principles and practices of making a dictionary is called Lexicography.
Comparative Linguistics is comparing one language with another sister language.
All the languages in the world are grouped under different Families. A language family is a group of related languages that developed from a common historic ancestor, related to and referred to as Protolanguage. Proto Dravidian is an hypothetical language from which all Dravidian languages like Tamil, Kannada, Telugu, Malayalam, Tulu etc. are born. Different Family of languages are Indo-European, Dravidian, Astronesian, Afroasiatic, Sino-Tibetian, Uralic, Austoasiatic, Niger-Congo and Slavic.
Thesaurus is a Dictionary of words with the same or nearly the same meanings or synonyms and their opposites, or antonyms.
Languages which are not written are termed Spoken language and Languages which are written and having literature are termed as Literary Language.
A Classical language is one which has its independent tradition that arose mostly on its own, not as an offshoot of another tradition and which has a large and rich body of ancient literature. Sanskrit, Tamil, Greek, Latin, Chinese are some of the classical languages.
Major languages have their own scripts. Some of the languages are using the scripts of other languages or their modified form.
Sourashtra language has got its own script and it is a Literary language having a good number of literary works.
One should be able to speak, read and write in his/her Mother Tongue.